The Cross in Multicultural Symbolism

Rosicrucian Salon Bibliography
Steven Armstrong, PhD (Cand), Research Librarian
September 14, 2004

Pre-Christian Crosses, etc.: Web pages on Cross, Symbols, etc.

Cooke, Ian McNeil. Sun Disk to Crucifix: The Cross, A short illustrated
Penzance, Cornwall: Men-an-Tol Studios, nd. 

DesignBoom Web Page. "The sign of signs: the many permutations of the cross"

Miller, Crichton E. M. “The Celtic Cross.” Web Page.  & "Swastika." Mirror site at

Prinke, Rafal T. “Early Symbolism Of The Rosy Cross.” The Hermetic Journal, 25 (1984), 11-15.

Ulansey, David. Home page.

Ulansey, David. Origins of the Mithraic Mysteries. London: (Oxford University Press, revised paperback 1991. Ulansey theory that crossed legs of the Mythraic Torchbearers "represent the famous cross-- described by Plato in Timaeus 36c-- formed by the zodiac and the celestial equator, at the intersection point of which is the equinox" at

Wilson, Thomas, 1832-1902. The swastika, the earliest known symbol, and its migrations: with observations on the migration of certain industries in prehistoric times. Washington, D.C., 1896. From Annual report of the U.S. National Museum, 1894.  

Christian Cross: 

Benson, George Willard. The cross, its history & symbolism; an account of the symbol more universal in its use and more important in its significance than any other in the world. New York: Hacker Art Books, 1983. Reprint from 1934 edition.

“The Cross, its origin and significance.” Web page at (A sectarian Christian site in the 20th century "purification" school, but useful references.

Laliberté, Norman & Edward N. West. The history of the cross / Norman Laliberte and Edward N. West.  New York: Macmillan, 1960. 

Ward, Henry Dana, 1797-1884.  History of the cross: the pagan origin, and idolatrous adoption and worship, of the image. London, J. Nisbet & co.; Philadelphia, Claxton, Remsen, & Haffelfinger, 1871. (From the "purification" school of 19th century conservative Christians who sought to expunge all pagan elements from Christian Practice.)

Weidner, Jay & Vincent Bridges. A Monument to the End of Time: Alchemy,
Fulcanelli and the Great Cross. Aethyrea Books LLC, 2000.

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- Plotinus